Curso de Amônia em Inglês -Segurança na Refrigeração Industrial

Ammonia Training – Safety in Industrial Refrigeration
Ammonia (NH3) is a molecule formed by a nitrogen atom connected to three hydrogen atoms. It is obtained by a famous process called Haber Bosch which consists of reacting nitrogen and hydrogen in stoichiometric amounts at high temperature and pressure. It is the most used way to get ammonia nowadays.
Curso de Amônia em Inglês:

Curso em Amônia em Inglês
Curso de Amônia em Inglês

Program Content: Ammonia Course – Safety in Industrial Refrigeration
Ammonia cooling systems;
The ammonia;
Risks of refrigeration systems;
Safe management of refrigeration systems;
Equipment and materials;
Protective measures;
Training of workers;
Standards and references;
Fiscal Audit Aspects;
The example of Natal (RN);
Description of establishment;
Description of the accident;

Curso de Amônia em Inglês:
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Ammonia becomes liquid at room temperature and has the same chemical properties as caustic soda. It is stable when stored and used under normal conditions of storage and handling. However, above 450 ° C, it can decompose, releasing nitrogen and hydrogen. It is easily detected from very small concentrations (5 ppm) in the air by its characteristic smell.
Among their applications, they highlight the use as refrigerant and in the manufacture of urea, an important fertilizer. It is also used in the manufacture of textiles, rayon manufacture, rubber industry, photography, pharmaceutical industry, the manufacture of ceramics, dyes and tapes for writing or printing, saponification of fats and oils, as a neutralizing agent in industry Oil and as a latex condom, among others.
The use of ammonia in industrial refrigeration systems, the main object of the present study, is due to its characteristics as refrigerant:
Being volatile or capable of evaporating;
Show latent heat of high vaporization;
Require the minimum power for its compression at the condensing pressure;
Display critical temperature well above condensing temperature;
Have reasonable evaporation and condensation pressures;
Produce as much cooling as possible for a given volume of steam;
Be stable, with no tendency to decompose under operating conditions;
Do not present harmful effects on metals, lubricants and other materials used in other components of the system;
Enable leaks to be detected by simple verification;
Have an odor that reveals its presence;
Have a reasonable cost;
Exist in abundance for its commercial job.
However, ammonia also presents some risks, as will be analyzed below.
Ammonia Training – Industrial Refrigeration Safety:
According to Technical Standard 03/2004 regarding industrial ammonia refrigeration (MTE, 2005), ammonia presents a moderate level of risk in relation to fire and explosion when exposed to heat or flame. However, the presence of oil and other combustible materials increases the risk of fire.
The gas is a powerful irritant of the respiratory tract, eyes and skin.
Depending on the time and level of exposure, effects may range from mild irritation to severe bodily injury. Inhalation may cause breathing difficulties, bronchospasm, burning of the nasal mucosa, pharynx and larynx, chest pain, and pulmonary edema. Ingestion causes nausea, vomiting and swelling of the lips, mouth and larynx. In contact with the skin, ammonia produces pain, erythema and vesiculation. At high concentrations, there may be tissue necrosis and deep burns. Contact with eyes at low concentrations (10 ppm) results in eye irritation and tearing.
At higher concentrations, it can cause conjunctivitis, corneal erosion, and temporary or permanent blindness. Late reactions can occur as cataracts, retinal atrophy, and pulmonary fibrosis. Exposure to concentrations above 2,500 ppm for approximately 30 minutes may be fatal.
Ammonia Training – Industrial Refrigeration Safety:
Regarding refrigeration facilities, the biggest concerns are leaks with formation of toxic ammonia cloud and explosions. According to Technical Standard 03/2004 (MTE, 2005), “the main causes of accidents are failures in system design and damage to equipment caused by heat, corrosion or vibration”, as well as by inadequate maintenance or lack of maintenance of their components, such as pressure relief valves, compressors, condensers, pressure vessels, purging equipment, evaporators, piping, pumps and instruments in general.
It is important to note that even the best designed systems may have ammonia leaks, if operated and/or maintained poorly.
Leakings are often caused by:
Inadequate supply of vessels;
Failure on relief valves, both mechanical and by inadequate pressure adjustment;
Damage caused by external impact by mobile equipment, such as forklifts;
External corrosion, faster in high heat and humidity conditions, especially in the low pressure portions of the system;
Inner cracks of vessels that tend to occur in or near welding points;
Trapping of liquid in the pipes, between closing valves;
Liquid excess in the compressor;
Excessive vibration in the system, which can lead to its premature failure.
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